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Higashi, formally known as Higashi-no-kuni (東ノ国) or historically called Ko-ashihara (古葦原国), is a Terran country located northeast of Yan where it enjoys strong diplomatic relations, which has encouraged cultural exchange between the two states. While Higashi is made up of various races, it is predominated by the Oni as well as a handful of Aegir.

Higashi’s history could be traced back to the veneration of a goddess whose descendants became the Emperor of Higashi, or the "Toukou". Entering the medieval era, however, Higashi fractured into a diarchy of two ruling clans: the Kougon of the north and the Mitsumoto of the south, with both clans setting up their own respective emperors. Following a devastating civil war, both clans evolved into different forms of government with the North retaining the old bakufu and the South evolving to a modernized constitutional monarchy. While the nation prospers in the era of peace, a bubble economy is slowly building up due to over-investment that might fracture the fragile truce.

The Higashinese language is similar to Japanese in our world, but both have distinct grammars and accents even though both are mutually intelligible enough with each other.


Founding myth

Higashi's founding myth could be found in a legend recorded in Records of Tales from Past (『今昔聞言略事録』) written around the year 300 that narrated the origin of Higashi's imperial dynasty. Long ago, the land of Higashi was a land of disaster because it was plagued by a mysterious “chaos” called the Magatsu (禍津), causing the sky to turn abnormally colorful yet without day and night. To the south of Higashi, there existed an eight-headed evil “god” named the Ara-no-kami (荒の神) who created endless droughts, forcing the people to seek shelter in a reed swamp. Seeing their people undergoing suffering, the sun god of Higashi, Hinomitsuru Kami-no-Mikoto, personally killed the Magatsu with his sacred sword which was shattered into the Five Pillar Gods (五柱佐津天神), and the Five Pillar Gods would soon assisted him in slaying the Ara-no-kami.[1]

The battle against the Ara-no-kami was a tough one due to Its regenerating trait and Its blood that could burn, and the five gods sacrificed themselves in Its jaws. Nevertheless, the blood split further strengthened the mortals which created the five tribes of Higashi. Together, the tribes succeeded in cutting Its heart, only to uncover a nine-tailed Pythian goddess who would later be named Asayo-Yoruakeru no Hime-no-Mikoto. The awakening of Asayo-Yoruakeru not only brought day and night to Higashi for the first time, but also, she united the five tribes and declared the foundation of Ko-ashihara, the Land of Reed Swamp, at Goshin Shinka-kyo by crowning her son Jingi as the emperor of Higashi whose bloodline continues in present days.[1]

Ritsuryō era

For the first few centuries, Ko-ashihara prospered under the guidance of the Asayo-Yoruakeru's lineage. The emperors managed to pacify the invading Aegir and Oni clans and turned them into their subjects regardless of their enmity in the past. By the time of Emperor Sangaku, Yanese culture and political structure was first introduced that ushered in the era of a strong, centralized bureaucracy, and Ko-ashihara was renamed "Higashi" under Yanese influence.[2]

However, the constant Catastrophes that devastated the commonfolk's lands, religious tensions between temples and Shinto shrines, and the imbalance among the royal house and the feudal daimyos slowly destabilized the nation. Many daimyos quietly gathered up their armies in preparation for a potential war. In the midst of the chaos, a rising samurai clan led by its shogun, Oniayame Shigekazu, ousted the royals' power and established the bakufu system around Terran year 400. His sixty years of rule was marked by an iron fist who allowed the samurai to take control over Higashi in the name of restoration of order.[3]

Unfortunately, following Shogun Shigekazu's passing, the samurai clans violated the fragile balance with the royals by establishing the northern Kougon clan, formerly a close ally with the royals, as the head of state of Higashi. Series of political struggles led to the fall of the Oniayame clan. On the other hand, the southern Mitsumoto clan were disgraced by the Kougon's action and sought to preserve the genuine emperor, and to others' surprise, the fallen Oniayame clan, now led by Shigekazu's eldest son Seisaku, chose to side with the Mitsumoto. The clash eventually led to the founding of the Northern and Southern Courts and a total civil war across Higashi.[3]

Warring era

For the next three century, the Higashi North-South War or the Kokusen-shouran (国戦戕乱) devastated the once-peaceful country. The war even shocked the Yanese imperial court, and the True Lung urged both sides to calm down while condemning the Oniayame's disloyalty to the Kougon. It was marked with numerous humanitarian crises such as sabotages and assassinations like the Kujin-gari (九人狩り), the "Bloody Hunt of Nine." As the war prolonged, the Kougon, armed with superior weapons, proved to be the winner of the war, yet the Mitsumoto had the resources and the leading royal house that could exhaust the Kougon's army. By the year 635, Shogun Seisaku passed away due to Oripathy during a campaign, and the Oniayame clan completely vanished into history after the Mitsumoto no longer trusted them due to such an ungraceful end. The war also gave rise to the Eight Families, and each half of them started to gain political control over the Courts to lessen the bloodshed. In the year 801 as both sides grew weary over the conflict, a truce was signed in the nominal capital of Goshin Shinka-kyo, and the North-South rule was finally solidified.[4]

Conflicts between both sides continued to a smaller degree. Loyalties between members of both courts were notoriously fickle, and defections to either side were a common sight. But it was the Bloodpeak Campaign in the year 1072, a total invasion of the Ursus Empire onto Higashi, forcing the Kougon and Mitsumoto to form an uneasy alliance. The retaliation was successful in which Higashi managed to invade Ursine soil, and the devastation resulted in the decline of the Ursus Empire following the Great Rebellion.[5] However, it was a pyrrhic victory because the Ursi's superior military strategies and weapon industries easily crushed the Kougon's samurai, forcing the North to seek aid from the industrial South. After the war ended, Yan acted as mediator between the two powers in regards to compensation and POW exchange, eventually easing the tension.[6]

Present days

For the next twenty years after the Bloodpeak Campaign, both sides chose to focus economic activities and rebuilding of the country, ushering in a short period of peace called the “Recovering Twenty Years.” The North has turned into a military base, while the South becomes a mercantile land that focuses more on commercial economy and trading.[7] Because the South is the least devastated area, it is able to export many electronic devices to other nations along with its rising subcultures admired by the youth even until present days. In the year 1080, the Mitsumoto even took a drastic step by reforming its political structure to a cabinet system under the advice from overseas students in Yan and Leithanien. While the North is still under the traditional bakufu system led by stubborn conservatives, it slowly embraced modernization via investments from Yan. The old military industries evolved to heavy industries through the help of the four families. Once rejecting modern culture, even the North slowly accepts the rising subculture of the South which they see as a method to unite both courts.[6] Nevertheless, the current economic prosperity is built upon the frail trust between the two factions which could collapse under potential circumstances in the future.

Higashi also appears to have been facing otherworldly threats as well. Due to its proximity to the sea where the nation's Aegir populace comes from, the coastal regions have been an active ground for the Church of the Deep where they operate underground.[8] Its proximity to the Infy Icefield where the northern demons, aka. the Collapsals, lurking around, also force Higashi to station military bases in the snowy tundra.[9]

Notable people


  • Hinomitsuru Kami-no-Mikoto (日満化見尊): Full name Great Heavenly God Hinomitsuru Kami-no-Mikoto (天原大御神日満化見尊). The sun god in Higashinese belief who slew the Magatsu with his sacred sword.
  • Asayo-Yoruakeru no Hime-no-Mikoto (朝夜夜明比賣命): The nine-tailed Pythian goddess born from the corpse of the Ara-no-kami who united the five tribes and installed the dynasty of the Toukou lineage through her son.
  • Emperor Jingi (神儀東皇): The son of Asayo-Yoruakeru and the first Toukou of Higashi from whom the linage of emperors begin.
  • Emperor Shinrō (神滝東皇): The eldest son of Emperor Jingi who enacted the Magatsu Expulsion Edict and politically exalted the Shinto relogion.
  • Emperor Genbun (玄文東皇): The reigning emperor during the Sajikawa Incident where the kannushi was erroneously pardoned by the daimyo despite his crime for false report following a land quarrel against the the daimyos. The incident sparked the tension between the Shinto kannushi and the daimyo.[10]
  • Emperor Sangaku (山岳東皇): The emperor of Higashi known for his introduction of Yanese culture and political structure.
  • Emperor Tenmon (天文東皇): The last emperor before the shogunate era who witnessed the rise of the daimyos and the political conflicts among the aristocrats.
  • Oniayame Shigekazu (鬼菖蒲重一): The first reigning Shougun of Higashi hailing from an Oni samurai family. He was originally a general serving the royal house as the "Great Guardian Samurai" who earned the title the "Sword God" thanks to his brilliant military skills. His death after his sixty years of ironclad rule marked the beginning of the North-South War.
  • Oniayame Seisaku (鬼菖蒲征作): The eldest son of Shigekazu. After the disgrace of his clan by the North, he chose to side with the South which ignited a full-scale civil war. He passed away due to Oripathy during a campaign in the year 635
  • Neon's father: A Higashinese military commander who was a good friend of Hellagur during their time in the military academy, before going on separate ways.[note 1] However, during the Bllodpeak Campaign in the Terran year 1072, Hellagur had no option but to kill him, as he was targeted by the Ursine forces. With his last breath, he entrusted him his daughter Neon, as well as his personal sword, the Kudarikiri.[11]



  • Goshin Shinka-kyo (御神神禾京): The nominal capital of Higashi where the ancient state of Ko-ashihara was founded. In the North-South era, the city becomes a mere religious symbol that unites the two courts together.
  • Kusarikawa (鎖川): The capital of the Northern Court's jurisdiction.
  • Mitsukue (御机): The capital of the Southern Court's jurisdiction.


  • Roka
  • Shin-Aki (新安芸): A city that was rebuilt after being wrecked by a devastating Catastrophe. It is known for its ancient horror stories surrounding the mysterious Saeki (佐伯) district, which later inspired the video game Nukenin.[12]
  • Taisha (大社): A Shinto shrine run by Tsukinogi's family located atop a mountain, at the foot of which is a Buddhist temple. The Shinto shrine maidens are said to be in a good relationship with the Buddhist monks, furthermore the locals recognize the teachings of both faiths.[13]


  • Soubo: A mountain range where the Roka Village is located. It is where Operators Yato and Noir Corne saw the Rathalos for the first time.[14]


  1. Stated by Liduke in the Q&A section of Arknights Art Concept Book Vol 2


  1. 1.0 1.1 pg. 326-327, "Higashi: Letters From the Farthest East," Terra: A Journey.
  2. pg. 327-328, "Higashi: Letters From the Farthest East," Terra: A Journey.
  3. 3.0 3.1 pg. 328-329, "Higashi: Letters From the Farthest East," Terra: A Journey.
  4. p. 330, "Higashi: Letters From the Farthest East," Terra: A Journey.
  5. Home
  6. 6.0 6.1 pg. 331-332, "Higashi: Letters From the Farthest East," Terra: A Journey.
  7. Kirara's Archive files
  8. Mizuki's Archive Files
  9. Chain of Camps (Expeditioner's Joklumarkar node)
  10. p. 327, "Higashi: Letters From the Farthest East," Terra: A Journey.
  11. Hellagur's Archive Files
  12. Urban Legends
  13. Tsukinogi's Archive Files
  14. CF-TR-1